Tuesday, 24 February 2015

BONE DISEASE:OSTEOPOROSIS

Bone is a dynamic body tissue which get calcified and strength our body ,give exact shape ,posture which is impossible without it. Bones are living tissue which keep on remolding whole life (bone formation and destruction) in older age the process of destruction of bone(by osteoclast cells) is more the formation(by osteoblast cells) that's why in old age bone are weak and prone to fracture. Simply how much you stronger your bone in young age(before 30) that will delay destruction. Osteoporosis is define as reduced bone density, which causes a micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue and lead to an increased risk of fractures. More the bone density stronger bone you have.  Most common associated with postmenopausal women. Other causes as follow.




CAUSES OF OSTEOPOROSIS 
DRUGS
Some of drugs work for body but with side effects (as every good thing have bad thing with it).
Corticosteroids is important cause of osteoporosis depend on duration and dose of therapy. Practically there is no safe dose of corticosteroids but if dose (prednison) exceed 7.5mg daily for 3 months the risks dramatically increase, key impact on osteoblast (bone forming cell) which is inhibited by this.Other agents are GnRH, sedative, anticonvulsion, alcohol excess, heparin.




ENDOCRINE DISEASES
There are multiple endocrine problem causes osteoporosis some of them are Hypogonadism, cushing's syndrome, hyperparathyroidism (destroy the bone and extract the calcium out of it) , hyperthyroidism.




INFLAMMATORY DISEASE
Inflammation is not good for health as well as our bone chronic inflammation lead to the destruction of bone and risk of osteoporosis is develop i-e Rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis.




GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE
Malabsorption the problem is with your absortion mechine so less amount of calcium absorped lead to osteoporosis, chronic liver disease.




MISCELLANEOUS
Some cancer and infection may cause osteoporosis but less in number. Myeloma,HIV infection....
CLINICAL FEATURE
You may not feel that your bone is weak until fracture occurs, asymptomatic until fracture occurs, back pain, often episode of minimal trauma may occurs.




DEXA SCAN
If you feel some kind of weakness go for dexa scane (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) at lumber spine and hip. If T-score value is less then or equal to -2.5 you have it(osteoporosis).




LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION
Aim is to reduce the fracture. Cessation smoking right now, dietary calcium intake is helpful, regular bone stress exercises, Here moderate amount of alcohol intake is good, Vitamin D, protein diet, reducing harmful substance, minerals.




DRUGS
Consult to doctor for proper treatment normally bisphosphonates is the main stay.