Monday, 15 December 2014

WAST AND ITS TYPE

Waste are materials that are not product produced for the market for which the initial user has no further use i-e in terms of persons own purposes of production, transformation, consumption and which person wants to dispose. The generation are excluded includes the Residuals Recycled or Reuse (UNEP).
Today we are breathing in the revolutionized society, the things better for human being by industrial revolution. Industrial revolution has been major environmental issue beside that waste created at public places, homes, offices, hospitals... Some people are environmental conscious and create very little amount of waste but other don't this is also true about the countries. The methods which used by different counteries are quite different some use  more recycling, composting ,other strongly embark on little waste production, still other engage them self into waste to energy plants or many more ; but all are reducing the waste .There are 2 system define the types of waste 1.Generally 2. Modern system of waste managment.




A.TYPES OF WASTE (GENERALLY)
Generally waste can be divided into solid and liquid both may be hazardous,and can also be classify as organic, re-usable and recyclable.

SOLID WASTE
Non-liquid waste is solid waste. The waste predominantly, garbage and is rubbish or refuse that we make in our homes, schools, offices and any other place. These include old news paper, books, broken furniture or any thing even a food waste is included in solid waste.






LIQUID WASTE
The waste which is primarily in liquid form; coming from houses, The non-solid waste form of waste; some time a solid waste can also be converted into liquid form ,any waste is in liquid form is liquid waste i-e liquid used for cleaning in companies, industries also the waste detergents.





HAZARDOUS WASTE
As name indicates the waste have potentially threaten the enviornment i-e public health. The disposal and handling of hazardous waste is require appropriate authority to supervise as done by many countries. The hazardous waste could be Reactive(the substance eaily react or explode), Corrosive( destroy metals), Inflammable( fire easily catch) and the Toxic (poisonous for livings). E-g includes mercury containing substances, batteries, lamps, pesticides, fire extinguisher a lot more....







RECYCLABLE WASTE
The waste that can potentially recycled. Recycling the process which make the useful thing from the waste(recycle) that may be your's Plastic ( from your's shopping bags, bottles), Glass product (broken glass, soft drink bottles,juice bottles), Aluminium products( i-e cans Recycling of 1 ton aluminium cans conserves more then 207 million Btu energy that is equivalent to 1,665 gallon of gasoline or 36 barrels of oil. ), Paper products( newspaper, cardboard).






ORGANIC TYPE WASTE
The waste comes from animals or plants source is organic waste. Organic waste is biodegradable eaisly boken down over a peroid of time with help of organisms and finally turn into manure). Compost is example of organic waste over a period of time.






B. TYPES DEFINE BY MODERN SYSTEM OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
According to Modern system of waste management there are many types of waste.

MUNICIPAL WASTE
This includes commercial waste, demolition waste and household waste.






BIOMEDICAL WASTE
The waste produce by hospital, clinics.





HAZARDOUS WASTE
This include the waste generated by the factories, Industries.





SPECIAL HAZARDOUS WASTE
This type of waste could be more dangerous they include Radioactive waste and Electronic waste.



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Friday, 29 August 2014

WATER IT'S SOURCES AND HEALTH

The safety and accessibility of drinking-water are major concerns throughout the world. Health risks may arise from consumption of water contaminated with infectious agents, toxic chemicals, and radiological hazards. Improving access to safe drinking-water can result in tangible improvements to health. US has one of safe drinking water supply in whole world

SOURCES OF WATER
There are multiple sources of water as we all know that important is that the water we drink coming from which source as the taste of water depends on its source .Some major sources of drinking water .

SPRING WATER
Water collect  from underground source .Superior type of water because a lot of minerals in it and excellent taste .Excellent source for factories to collect water from underground source .The water contains a lot of minerals in it if you have your own source regular check taste for impurities and you use as commercial repute.





FILTERED WATER
Better water then tap water .There are multiple ways to filter the water i-e most common direct application of filter to tap water ,or through water cooler ,use of charcoal and others. Important is that to regular change of filter to inhibit any contamination .





WELL WATER
Excellent way to get pure and clear water plus added traces of essential vitamins but they easily contaminated so keep eye on taste and clarity of well water .






TAP WATER
The water we get in tap is mains/tap water .Chlorine is added to that water for purification because major microorganisms are killed by chlorine but it taste the water different .When you use this water first purify it by boiling(boiling kills microorganisms but doesn't remove chemicals from water so better is that ), refrigeration (refrigeration covert chlorine to gas so after chilling taste will improve ).






DISTILLED WATER 
This type of water obtain after heating water which convert into steam then condensed back into water .Good for machines and other stuff but not as drinking water because of no minerals (zero osmolarity) and pull's body water out so don't use until no other source is available .






HARD WATER
Water that have high level of minerals form from when percolates through magnesium containing and calcium containing minerals i-e dolomite ,lime stone .It is￿isn't harmful for health .






CONCLUSION 
People must know from where the water come which they drinking and according to that type of water which they using adjust how much treatment is require to complete purified it.



Saturday, 26 July 2014

IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA 

Normally red cell of our blood carry oxygen from lungs to the required site hence in tissue low oxygen level lead to hypoxia of that tissue.There are 400 different types of anemia i-e Iron deficiency anemia,Aplastic anemia,Pernicious anemia,Macrocytic megaloblastic anemia,thalaseemia,sickle cell anemia....

Ideally speaking:
                      "anemia is condition in which total body RBCs mass is reduced "
Practically :
                      "anemia is any condition which reduce the PCV(pack cell volume)/hematocrit "
Generally :
                      "Anemia a condition in which the blood cell count less than normal value due to any reason"

IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA "anemia is due to iron deficiency "



TOTAL BODY IRON
Normal body store approx 2-5 gm ,condition like pregnancy ,lactation ... requires more iron that is the reason in USA every 6th women of reproductive age lack iron stores ,affect overall 3 million people .
Total iron in body has 2 forms
1. Functional iron
2. Storage iron






FUNCTIONAL IRON
This type of iron perform normal body functions and present in
1. Heamoglobin (in red blood cell of body )
2. Myoglobin (in muscle )                          
3. Enzymes(catalase,cytochrome)              






STORAGE FORM
This form of iron utilize when need ,present in
1. Ferritin(2/3 of store iron )       
2.Hemosiderin(1/3 of store iron )





DIETARY IRON

Off 2 type
1. Animal source
2. Vegetable source







ANIMAL SOURCE
Getting the iron from animals product i-e meat, liver,egg yolk ....,the iron we get is superior type of iron the Heme iron which has better bioavailability then inorganic iron (from vegetable source ), from which 10-20% absorb .






VEGETABLE SOURCE
Getting the iron from vegetable  product i-e fruits ....., inferior type of iron(inorganic iron ) only 1%is absorb.







 IRON LOSSES FROM BODY
IN MALE
1mg/day iron loss in feaces,exfoliated cells of sweat and GI tract .






FEMALE OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE
2-1.5mg/day loss ;during menstruation 30-50ml blood loss every month so loss of 1ml of blood mean 1mg of iron is lost hence female loss 30-50ml over a 4-5day equal to 30-50 mg of iron loss but over a month because other remaning days are not menstruating one more point is that female loss iron as male do additionally loss in menstruation that is the reason females are more anemic.







SYMPTOMS
A lot of symptoms including fatigue(not related to any other cause), dizziness .........






 CAUSES

FEMALE OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE
Female of reproductive age is prone to iron deficiency anemia due to highly loss of iron which can't replaced by dietary intake .






VEGETARIAN OR LOW IRON INTAKE
Strict vegetarians or low animal product consumption lead to low heme iron so body iron is utilizing and not getting enough iron to replace iron stores .






HEAVY MENSTRUAL BLEEDING
High loss of iron in bleeding lead to anemia because 1ml blood loss equal to 1gm iron loss.
COMPOUNDS NEGATIVE INFLUENCE ON INORGANIC IRON
Which interfere iron absorption i-e
  1. Phytates(in cereals ,wheat..)
  2. Tannates(in tea)
  3. Phosphates(in fruit ,vegetable )
  4. Carbonates(in food)
  5. Oxalate (in spanish ,tomatoes )






COMPOUNDS POSITIVE  INFLUENCE ON INORGANIC IRON

  1. Ascorbate(vitamin C)
  2. Citrate 
  3. Aminoacid
  4. Sugars (glucose)


ULCERS
Peptic ulcer intrup the iron absorption




COLON CANCER
Middle age man with unknown loss of iron develop anemia must suspect colon cancer until prove otherwise .






SEE THE DOCTOR
If you suspect your skin is pale, you suffer breathlessness ,tachycardia ,chest pain ,cold extremities and numbness in hand feet you must rush to the doctor for further evaluation .






TREATMENT
Get animal source iron initially then iron supplementation plus vitamin B-12 injections/supplementation.
B-12 is necessary because they highly concentrate in animal products and also require for nervous system ,lack of B-12 symptoms of nervous system ensure.
Pregnant women ;must take iron ,follic acid and B-12 supplements.
Note: if you started iron supplement must continue until 6 months because they fulfill body iron stores .


Saturday, 29 March 2014

CONSTIPATION

Constipation effect people of any age, gender and race most common in people of low socioeconomic class, age more then 60 and women. Constipation effect approx 40 plus million (15% of population) across United State hence make it one of most common problem related to GI. Constipation is common problem in any medical (like fracture, surgery, pain relive medication) and physiological condition (like pregnancy).

WHAT IS CONSTIPATION
Define as infrequent passage of hard, dry, compacted stool which is difficult to pass or painful to pass (If last for several weeks then Chronic constipation). Constipation also define as fewer then three bowel movement for entire week.
SYMPTOMS
  • Straining complain by patient.
  • Sensation of incomplete evacuation of stool.
  • Pain around the anus or abdominal discomfort.
  • bowel movement relieved cramping situation of stomach.
  • In between regular bowel movement diarrhea like stool is there.
  • Bloody stools may be one of complication.


CAUSES OF CONSTIPATION
DIETARY
Lack of fiber and fluid intake is the main problem related to diet because fiber make the stool bulky, softer that is easily pass from colon in addition of fluids to fiber then fibers is more effective. Fiber is key component of any diet if you take low fiber diet as the older adults do (this is because low interest in food, feeling satiety, or problem with chewing or swallowing) this will ultimately lead to constipation.





PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Physical activity is one of the reason of constipation the mechanism behind this is not known yet. Constipation is common in patient after suffering from any trauma or other medical condition which lead to long bed rest.





PREGNANCY
Pregnancy may induced constipation at least half of pregnant women. The cause behind the is increase level of progesterone(hormone); This effect on all body structure including GIT(digestive tract) which relax and ultimately cause slow movement of food from GIT and cause constipation another cause is iron supplementation and growing uterus compress the rectum.





IRON SUPPLEMENTS
Iron supplementation is necessary for pregnant women and cause the constipation worse.



DEPRESSION
Depression is cause constipation.





MEDICATION
Some medication cause constipation because direct effect on the GIT i-e Iron supplementation....




IGNORING OF BOWEL MOVEMENT
If you ignore your bowel movement this will lead to large amount of water absorption from colon and renaming food is dry and very difficult to pass from anus and this will lead to constipation.





STRUCTURAL GI DISORDERS
Major structural disorder like colonic carcinoma, diverticulosis,hirschprung's disease.... effect the GIT.




TREATMENT
1 month trail basis of dietary fiber and/ or laxatives is justified if constipation remain see the doctor for further treatment.


Friday, 28 February 2014

ASTHMA

Advancing of industrialization improvement of status and life style gave birth to the disease which is not much fatal in past and prognosis is good but now due to disturbance of environment by variety of pathogen which are responsible for production of disease while inhaling  that air.The pathogen due to environmental factors influence upon then make them more resistance and stronger against us.Today open minded life people love to chose the sedentary life style and great value to appetite that is why obesity is common in developed countries; obesity is mother of diseases this will influence approx all the diseases asthma is one of them. Asthma affect 300 million people world-wide. Asthma is develop due to continuous inhalation of expose allergen(any substance induce our body immunity). Asthma is  under the heading of obstructive diseases 
  • Extrinsic Asthma(this is due to expose allergen to body)
  • Intrinsic asthma(family history of asthma)
SIGN AND SYMPTOM
First notable symptom is shortness of breath with whistling sound when expire the air (wheezing), chest tightness (with or without pain), disturbed sleep due to shortness of breath, change color of mucus when you cough up...  

HOW TO CONTROL  ASTHMA

SUBSTANCE TRIGGERS YOUR ASTHMA
To stop or avoid the trigger's of asthma. Plenty of substances which may trigger the asthma but fact is that out of those substances which one is involve to acerbate your asthma (you quit able to identified by noticing yourself that which things acerbate yours asthma). Asthma triggers by carpeting (instead use wood floors), Stuffed animals in bedroom, dust mites, smoking, pets, cockroaches, molds, emotional related problems, cold environment, exerciser....




NO MORE SMOKING
Smoking acerbate asthma. Smoking is either active(person is smoking) or passive(person inhaled the smoke of other) both acerbate asthma. So if you are smoker quit it, if your friends are smoking leave the place to avoid smoke and ask your family and friends to stop smoking.





ALLERGIES
If you are allergen to some specific food, cold air, dust, pollen, polluted air, smoke, a lot more, identified the cause of allergen and avoid that substance or condition or environment. Use washable blankets and other stuff of regular usage.





PETS, STUFFED ANIMALS
Pet trigger the asthmatic attack so keep the pet away if someone refuse to give it away then bathe the pet weekly or every 5th day that helps you to reduce the asthma attack. Stuffed animal also trigger asthma and child especially doesn't  give it away one way to clean your stuffed animal from dust mites to place it into freezer for a day in week and after that wash it freezing kill the dust mites and washing help to clear the residues of dust mites.





PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EMOTIONAL STATUS
Strenuous exercise enhance the asthma it doesn't mean you never exercise. Limit your activity while air pollution is high (see t.v, radio for calculated value of air). Strong emotional news, problem.. enhance asthmatic attack even thunderstorms and extreme of temperature(freezing temperature) exacerbate asthma. So keep calm and avoid peak of emotion and exercise.  





OCCUPATIONAL ASTHMA
Asthma is due to occupation of person is occupational asthma. Main agent is isocyanates, flour and grain dust, animals, fluxes, wood dust, latex... cause occupational asthma and the worker most reported asthma is of paint sprayers, animals handlers, bakers and pastry-makers, welders, nurses, chemical workers, timber workers, food processing workers.. This can be avoided by simply changing the occupation or wear safety masks and follow safety precautions about particular substance and asthma.





RESPIRATORY INFECTION 
Respiratory infection is more common in patient with asthma (infection like pneumonia, acute respiratory disease...)




POOR HYGIENE AND LOW ECONOMICAL STATUS
Rate of asthma is high with low hygiene and mortality (death) due to asthma is high in poor living status.





NEVER HAD A INFECTION
Studies shows rate of asthma is high in also who never infected by a infected organism (bacteria...)

CONTROLLED ASTHMA
If the daytime symptoms of asthma is not appear(2 or less in a week), asthma doesn't make limitation in your activities, no history of nocturnal symptom or awakening is present (2 or less in a week), no need of rescue reliever treatment(2 or less in a week), lung function is normal, no exacerbation of asthma that mean your asthma is controlled no need of treatment required.






TREATMENT
Asthma is controlled as short term and long term. Short term agent (like Albuterol..) use to relive the attack, long term reviler (like salbutamol..) use to stop the attack.




SEE THE DOCTOR
See the doc. if symptoms is worsen day by day.


By HARIM NAZ